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SCI喜欢的文章该怎么写-Discussion-EditSprings艾德思

editsprings | 2018/06/26 10:24:19  | 2653 次浏览

写完结果results之后,我们来归纳一下论文的discussion/conclusion。首先,看一下results 和conclusion的区别。

Result:侧重因某种原因所产生的最终结果。

Conclusion:强调仔细思考做出的推论或结论,或者某事的结局。

所以,result更侧重的是客观描述what,而conclusion就要包含作者的思考和探究,更侧重how和why。

因此,在这一部分主要是针对所研究的问题或者假设提出作者认为的答案,是对本篇论文阐述的内容以及所得出的发现做出高屋建瓴的解释, 以及对当前解决方法不足的讨论和对未来的展望。

按照一贯推崇的套路写法,这一部分也可以分为“四步走”。

第一步:在初始段落中,简要回顾一下目标或研究问题。然后,通过总结主要发现,介绍引言最后一段提出的问题的答案。具体讨论主要研究结果,因为它们涉及研究问题,而避免从结果部分重述数据的细节。这部分最多写六个句子:一句话重申研究的目的;一句话说明主要方法;总结主要发现的2-3句话;一句话说明主要结论。当然最好能用更为简练的语言的阐述,以三句为佳。

看这个例子:

We have shown that XXX methods can achieve an order-of-magnitude acceleration in hemodynamic response sampling by combining dense head coil array parallel data acquisition with distributed source modeling. (reiterating the purpose of the study重申研究的目的) Applying XXX to study the visual system using an event-related design, we found that the method is both sensitive and reliable, as demonstrated in the individual participant and group average results (stating the main approach + main findings 说明主要方法和发现). Localization accuracy was examined by comparing the XXX and conventional EPI task-related activity in primary visual cortex, with the comparison revealing a good spatial match (approximately 5 mm) between the two methods (main findings 主要发现). Our results in the visual cortex show a faster BOLD-contrast response compared to conventional EPI (stating the main conclusions 主要结论).

第二步:解释你的结果,为自己的答案提供支持和论据。讨论文献中根据已有信息得出的关键结果。引用相关作品,比较和解释你的发现。讨论任何意想不到的发现,并就该发现提出建议。陈述此项发现对于临床和/或科学含义。如果你需要总结出版文献的主要发现,请注意确保:这些文献质量很好(顶级期刊/英文刊物);所提供的信息是具体的;从外部来源获得的所有信息都被适当和一致地引用;得出准确的结论。

看看例子:

Our results in the visual cortex show a faster BOLD-contrast response compared to conventional EPI. This is comparable to previous results (Janz et al., 1997; Pfeuffer et al., 2002). In comparison to previous studies, XXX methods exhibit two principal advantages……. (讨论文献中根据已有信息得出的关键结果。引用相关作品,比较和解释你的发现。)

We found that XXX acquisition and reconstruction had sufficient sensitivity to reliably detect task-related activity in primary visual areas with high temporal resolution; we also found in this study that we had reduced false positive activation compared to our first XXX attempts (Lin et al., 2006a). This is because the current implementation has better matching between the reference scan and the XXX scan: both scans used the same 3D RF excitation, frequency encoding, and phase encoding. The only difference is that the reference scan had partition encoding steps, but the XXX scans did not. The improved matching between the reference scans and the XXX acquisitions, as quantified… It helps to generate a better reconstruction with higher sensitivity and reduced false positive activation. (解释你的发现,如果有意想不到甚至是不尽如人意的结果, 都不要逃避。 讨论这些发现,并就该发现提出建议。陈述此项发现对于临床和/或科学含义)

这第二部分可以扩展,取决于你想讨论的内容。如果需要,也使用子标题。

第三步:在不影响本项研究有效性的前提下,对研究的局限性和弱点进行一段说明。讨论研究的局限性和未来可能的研究发现,其目的是解决目前研究存在的弱点。如果可以采用合适语言做出合理的实名,这样的讨论反而会增加文章可读性和文章的含金量。

However, D and D* were not equal to ADC b50–750 and ADC b0–50 in absolute value, respectively. This discrepancy may be attributed to the limitation imposed by the MR software used in this study in which the minimum b value was restricted to….. appropriate combination of b values for the separation of perfusion and diffusion must be investigated in detail. However, many clinical MR systems may limit the arbitrary setting used in the magnitude and/or the number of b values.

第四步:一个很简短的总结,将结论与本项研究的目标联系起来并进行强化。

结语部分,有些杂志可能需要单独的子标题(Conclusion)自成一节,写作时要注意具体要求。

这一部分主要是1-2句总结作者目前研究的主要发现:一句描述主要结论,一句描述潜在影响。特别注意的是,在没有可靠数据支持的情况下, 切不要夸大调查结果或给出不相关甚至是错误的结论。

We divided the normal ADC of human skeletal muscle into ADC b0–50 and ADCb50–750 based on the finding that there were two straight lines with different slopes in the SI vs. b-value logarithmic plots for skeletal muscle. Regardless of the muscle studied, the value of ADCb0–50, reflecting both diffusion and perfusion, was significantly higher than that of ADCb50–750, which approximates a true diffusion coefficient for skeletal muscle……Further research on the relationship of ADC with skeletal muscle architecture, fiber type, physiological function, metabolism, maturation level, aging and muscle injury is necessary for the application of DWI in clinical medicine and sports sciences.

以上的四步走就是写作Discussion/Conclusion部分的套路。

在结束之前还需要提醒大家一些常犯的错误。

  • 讨论太长或太短,并且提出太多与当前研究无关的猜测;
  • 太过广泛的文献综述;
  • 讨论了没有在Results结果部分中提供的数据结果;
  • 未讨论意外或差异性的发现,或夸大当前发现的重要性;

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