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SCI论文写作之ExperimentalSection,SCI,写作,EditSprings,艾德思

网络 | 2018/11/29 14:55:20  | 106 次浏览

sci写作

 前期内容链接:

1. sci文章写作的三重境界

2. What makes a good publication? :从论文结构开始谈起

3. 题好一半文:Science, Nature的文章标题是什么样子的?

4. 好话不说第二遍:文章写作中的重述语意

5. sci文章写作(五): 写文章一定要有提纲

6. What makes a good publication? :从论文结构开始谈起

7. sci文章写作之Experimental section(一)

前言:

之前跟大家介绍过 Experimental section 里面的 Characterizations 部分,今天接着来讲讲 Experimental 里面最核心的一个部分——实验过程,包括 Materials synthesis 和 Activity measurement 等.为什么说这一部分是 Experimental 里面最核心的部分呢?因为如果别人对您的文章感兴趣,需要重复您的文章,所能参考的最主要的就是这个部分.而您的实验过程写得是不是清晰,是不是详细,很大程度上能够体现出您的科研素养.这里鼓励大家将实验细节写得尽可能清楚,因为真正的科研工作者从来不是因为在文章中隐瞒关键技术而牛逼的!

评价实验过程是不是写得清楚的唯一标准是: 别人能够按着您所写的步骤完全重复您的实验!

实例分析:

参考文献: J. Am.Chem. Soc. 2014 , 136, 6744−6753, 来自 University of Oregon 的 Shannon Boettcher group.

Film deposition. Prior to film deposition, substrates were cycled three times in 1 M KOH from 0.0−0.8 V vsHg/HgO. Substrates were rinsed with 18.2 MΩ·cm H2O before being transferred to the deposition solution. Films of Ni(OH)2 were cathodically deposited from unstirred solutions of 0.1 M Ni(NO3)2·6H2O (Sigma Aldrich, 99.999% trace metals basis) in 18.2 MΩ·cm H2O. As deposited Ni(OH)2 films showed no XPS signal for Fe (see discussion below). For films containing codeposited Fe, the total metal content in the deposition solutionwas held at 0.1 M, and FeCl2·4H2O (Sigma Aldrich,>98%) was added. The solutions were purged with N2 gas for at least 20 min before adding FeCl2·4H2O to prevent precipitation of insoluble FeOOH. Typical depositions at −0.1 mA cm−2 for 120 s gave effective film thicknesses of ∼ 40 nm (see Figure S1 in the Supporting Information for a typical deposition profile and QCM frequency measurement). After deposition, films were rinsed by dipping in H2O before being transferred to the electrochemical cell. The Fe/Ni ratio in the films was higher than that in the deposition solutions; however, any given Fe content insolution consistently produced films with the same Fe content (< ± 4%) asdetermined by XPS. All film Fe contents reported here are those measured by XPS.

逐句分析:

第一句:

Prior to film deposition, substrates were cycled three times in 1 M KOH from 0.0−0.8 V vs Hg/HgO. 这一句话交代了制备电极前载体是怎样处理的,请注意红色标记的文字,特别是数字.这些文字指明了处理次数,溶液( 包括浓度 ),循环伏安处理的电压范围.

注意:数字是 Experimental section 里面最重要的内容,要特别注意.

同样的内容,如果很粗糙的写的话,有人可能会写成这样:

All substrates were cycled in KOH solutionprior to film deposition.

这句话有问题么?实际上也没什么问题,不过将数字剔除之后,别人再来重复您的实验,所采用的条件可能就会与您的真实实验条件有比较大的差异.

第二句:

Substrates were rinsed with 18.2 MΩ·cm H2O before being transferred to the deposition solution. 这句话交代了 substrate 转移到电沉积溶液之前的处理过程.如果粗糙一些,这句话可不可以删除呢?其实好像问题也不大,不过从严谨的科研态度以及对读者负责任的角度来说,作者有义务提醒读者注意这些操作细节方面的问题.

第三句:

Films of Ni(OH)2 were cathodically deposited from unstirred solutions of 0.1 M Ni(NO3)2·6H2O ( Sigma Aldrich, 99.999% trace metals basis ) in 18.2 MΩ·cm H2O. 这一句简单地交代了一下电化学沉积的方式,还是提醒大家注意下红色文字.数值,细节值得关注!

备注:在 Experimental section 里面,对试剂出处的交代有两种方式,一种是像这里列出来的一样,在第一次出现这个试剂的时候注明 厂家,纯度 等关键信息;还有一种方法,以加一个 Reagents 部分,将本文中所有用到的试剂统一交代,注明厂家,纯度以及有无特殊处理等等.

第四句:

As deposited Ni(OH)2 films showed no XPS signal for Fe (see discussion below). 这句话对制备的 Ni(OH)2 样品进行了简单的说明.这句话可以不写,因为在正文中还会讨论,不过加上会让读者读起来更加容易一些.

第五句:

For films containing codeposited Fe, the total metal content in the deposition solution was held at 0.1M , and FeCl2·4H2O(Sigma Aldrich, >98%) was added. 这句话特别交代了 NiFeOOH 样品的制备条件,还是提醒大家注意红色字体部分.

第六句:

The solutions were purged with N2 gas for at least 20 min before adding FeCl2·4H2O to prevent precipitation of insoluble FeOOH. 这一句话很重要,因为这是实验操作中很重要的一个细节,在溶解 FeCl2 之前 一定要充氮气 ,而且最好要充 20 min 来赶跑溶解的 O2 ,否则 FeCl2 很有可能被氧化成 FeOOH ,进而影响电化学沉积的效果.再次提醒:基于对读者负责任的角度,实验中重要的细节一定要交代,不要藏着掖着.请记住: 您对科研的贡献不是您会而别人不会,而是有一天您能教会大家之前所不会的 .

第 七 句:

Typical depositions at −0.1 mA cm−2 for 120 s gave effective film thicknesses of ∼ 40 nm (see Figure S1 in the Supporting Information for a typical deposition profile and QCM frequency measurement). 这句话对具体的电化学沉积条件进行了说明. 数字!!!

第八句:

After deposition, films were rinsed by dippingin H2O before being transferred to the electrochemical cell. 第八句跟第四句一样 ,还是提醒读者注意一些细节.如果在转移之前不润洗的话,电极上残余的 FeCl2 溶液就会跟 1 M KOH 在电解池中反应,影响测试结果.

第九句:

The Fe/Ni ratio in the films was higher than that in the deposition solutions; however, any given Fe content insolution consistently produced films with the same Fe content (< ± 4%) as determined by XPS. All film Fe contents reported here are those measured by XPS. 这句话告诉读者结果中可能会存在的一些细节问题.写到这,我只能说 Shannon 太贴心了,真是手把手教读者做实验,任何在实验中可能会出现的细节问题都有交代.鼓励大家向 Boettcher group 学习,尽量让实验过程具体一点(具体跟啰嗦是两回事哈,语言还是要紧凑,废话不要写).

后记:

做一个严谨和负责任的科研工作者,从 Experimental section 开始!共勉,我的朋友们!

 

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