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材料课堂200篇英文论文中总结的最常见错误,中,论文,EditSprings,艾德思

网络 | 2018/12/03 15:56:43  | 156 次浏览



通过评审 200 多篇国作者撰写的英语学术文章,总结了其中的一些常见的中国式英文的习惯性用法.这些习惯性误用将会一一被解释说明,其中多数情况下将会伴有挑选出来的文章示例.这篇论文尝试说明怎样修改并避免这些错误,同时这些错误发生的原因有时也给予了可能的解释.本文可以作为个人在学术文章编辑时,尤其是在没有母语为英语的编辑的时候的指南.

 

引言

大多数中国高校都要求他们的博士和硕士研究生在国际期刊上发表至少一篇英语学术文章,并以此作为获得学位的必须条件.然而,很多因素都让这一任务在完成时困难异常.首先,原来的英语学习对写作方面的关注度不够,更不用说写作技术了.而目前的学习科目中也不含英语这一项,这导致作者的英语熟练程度逐渐下降.其次,大多数作者并没有在任何英文国家待过.再次,科技文章的写作不同于一般写作,因此即使英文国家的工科学生都设置了专门的科技写作课程对此进行专门学习.

很多时候,学生的文章因为英语水平太差而被拒.如果有条件的话,学生可以找一个以英文为母语的人编辑文章.但是,费用可能会相当高,因为一个系有很多学生,按照每人一篇论文,通常一篇论文要编辑两次计算,数量也很客观.雇佣人编辑文章也存在困难,费用高并且仅仅是在原来问题的基础上做一些小修小补.一个英文为母语的人会有效的帮助您扫除语法错误.但是,如果找个人并不具备相关专业的背景,尤其是他要编辑论文所需的专业背景,那么他也难以修改所有的错误和确保论文表达的意思清楚明白.他不能识别一些错误的专业术语翻译,这些术语本身是有标准用词.如上所述的错误是语法和拼写检查人员力所不能及的.此外,如果他们不熟悉所编辑论文的主题或者领域,他们难以把握论文的整体要义,从而难以对文章进行中肯的编辑.

雇一个有相似专业背景的人充当文章的编辑是一个更好的选择.然而,一个有专业背景的人可能能够胜任文章编辑的工作,但是他可能不能向作者解释怎样在将来的写作中避免类似错误的发生.并且对于大多数中国高校来说,雇佣这种单纯从事编辑工作的人员并非易事.高校可能的选择是考虑邀请能编辑文章的访问学者,与此同时,还能做一些学术和教学上的交流.

虽然编辑工作在文章发表中需要走的路可能是最长的,但是这并不妨碍告诉作者怎样在编辑过程中避免一些普遍性错误和语法的惯性毛病,这些都是清晰领会作者思想的拦路石.英文已经不错的作者只有清楚的意识到这些普遍性的错误和语法的惯性毛病并避免犯类似的错误才能够在写作中真正受益.

 

目的

本报告的目的是介绍一些中国学生在英语写作中出现的习惯性误用,前面已经说过,这些都是我在编辑超过 200 篇文章的过程中总结出来的.这些习惯性误用包括语法上的,语体上的,格式上的,这些错误很多时候使得作者的思想难以被领会.其中一些习惯,例如写的句子过长,这可以通过运用 MSWord 语法和样式检查进行纠正.但是,大多数错误,例如缺冠词,自动的语法检测装置就检测不出来.同时,这些软件工具也难以识别中国式英文.

 

结构

这些常见的误用习惯将会用两个章节进行说明.第一章列举了我个人认为的最需要注意的一些误用习惯.这些习惯影响论文的流畅程度,使得论文难以读懂并且发生的频率很高.在这一章里,在说明这些习惯的同时,从实际论文中挑选出来的例句将对此做进一步阐释,并且这些句子还经过了改写,告诉读者怎样写才是正确的.对于缺冠词的情况,我们还制作了流程图就怎样选择正确的冠词进行了详细说明.

第二章列出了其余的一些惯常误用,其中一些还有例句做进一步阐释.第二章对于一些词语之间细微差别的辨析很有用.

在论文中并没有陈述所有的习惯性用法,因为其中一些只能靠作者个人的写作积淀才能解决.例如,一些作者不能很好给论文拟定合适的标题,也不太会给论文中的新技术思想命名,名字不能准确反映其中所包含的内容以及功能.对于这些惯性的写作方法,一旦作者认识到了其中的不足,他们就能够在将来写出更好的科技英文文章.

 

第一章

"a , an,the'

最为常见的习惯性误用就是省略冠词 a, an 和 the .这个主要是因为普通话里没有与英文里冠词对等的词,更没有相关的用法规则,所以这使得非英文国家的人在使用冠词时有一定的难度.

冠词的出现表明其后将要接一个名词,名词的任何修辞词应该位于冠词和名词之间( abig blue bicycle / the first award ). A 和 an 是不定冠词; the 是定冠词.当一个单数不可数名词,一个为可数事物名字的普通名词用作名词的时候就需要类似的限定词.

出现错误的几种情况:

The , a 和 an

( 1 )在需要用到它们的时候被省略

( 2 )在它们不需要用到或者用了之后反而是多余的时候用上了.

( 3 )需要用冠词,但是用对恰当的冠词

一些冠词使用错误的例句:

错误用法: Figure2 shows the distribution of relative velocity on surface of main and splitterblades.15

正确用法: Figure2 shows the distribution of relative velocity on the surface of the mainand splitter blades.15

错误用法: Thesoftware PowerSHAPE is chosen to be a 3D modeling tool; it is good at dealingwith free surfaces and curves.4

正确用法: Thesoftware PowerSHAPE is chosen to be the 3D modeling tool; it is good atdealing with free surfaces and curves.4

在这个研究中只存在一种 3Dmodeling tool ,因此 "3D modeling tool' 是具体的,需要用定冠词 the .

错误用法: A theoretical method for calculating the innerflow-field in centrifugal impeller with splitter blades and investigation ofthe interactions between main and splitter blades is presented in this paper.The vortices are distributed on the main and splitter blades to simulate theeffects of flows. Systematical study of number and distribution of vortices is conducted.15

正确用法 A theoretical method for calculating the innerflow-field in a centrifugal impellerwith splitter blades and an investigationof the interactions between main and splitter blades is presented in thispaper. The vortices are distributed on the main and splitter blades to simulatethe effects of flows. A systematicalstudy of the number and distributionof vortices is conducted.15

错误用法 Theoretically, remanufacturing could fully takeadvantage of resources contained in EOF product thereby minimizing impact onenvironment to the greatest extent compared to landfill or recycling ofmaterials; consequently it contributes greatly to resource conservation.16

正确用法 Theoretically, remanufacturing could fully takeadvantage of resources contained in an EOFproduct thereby minimizing the impact on the environment to thegreatest extent compared to landfill or recycling of materials; consequently itcontributes greatly to resource conservation.16

 

定义:

冠词   也称限定词或者名词标记词,含 a , an 和 the . A 和 an 是不定冠词, the 是定冠词.冠词的出现表明其后将接一个名词,任何修辞名词的词应该放在冠词和名字之间 ( a cold ,metal chair/ the lightning-fast computer).

限定词 一个词或者词组,传统上主要等同于形容词,通过表述名词的数量用来限定名词(数量表达词,限定形容词,标志词).它们表明一个名词是泛指 (atree) 还是特指 (the tree) . The 是定冠词.在名词前, the 传达了所提及事物是特别所指的,是特定的. ( the plan) . A 和 an 是不定冠词,它们表明所提及的名词是在一般意义上的或者没有明确指明的 ( a plan) .

普通名词 :为一般的群体/地方/人员或者事物命名的名词: dog,house .

可数名词: 为某一事物或者某些事物命名的名词,并且这些事物是可以用数字计数的: radio,streets, idea, fingernails .

不可数名词: 为某一事物命名的名词,但是该事物不能用明确的数字计数的: water , time .

特定名词: 有精准意义且指称特定对象的名词;用定冠词 the

非特定名词: 指代同类物品中的任何一个的名词;用不定冠词 a , an

 

超长句

在中国学生撰写的文章中,长句很普遍,就其原因在于中国学生一般把中文句子直接翻译成英语.在中文写作中,将几个论据放在一个句子中从而表明它们之间关系是可行的,但是在英语中,主要的论点和每一个论据一般都放在单独的句子中.

通过句子的长度可以辨识句子是不是长句 —— 超过 60 个单词就是长句.但是,一个句子如果表述的内容过多从而使得论点变得不清晰,即使没有那么多单词它也是长句.通过限定每一个句子只说明一到两个话题,可以避免论文出现过长的句子.如果作者真的想强调论据之间的关系应该通过分号隔开/ 过长的句子: Accordingto the characteristic of fan-coil air-conditioning systems, this paper derivesthe cooling formula of fan-coil units based on the heat transfer theories and putsforward a new method to gauge cooling named Cooling Metering on the Airside, which can monitor the individual air-conditioning cooling consumption duringa period of time by detecting the parameters of inlet air condition – temperatureand humidity – of the fan-coil air-conditioning system as well as the parametersof inlet cooling water provided by the chiller.

正确表达: Thispaper derives the cooling formula of fan-coil units based on thecharacteristics of fan-coil air-conditioning systems and heat transfertheories, and puts forward a new method to gauge cooling called CoolingMetering on the Air-side . The new method can monitor individualair-conditioning cooling consumption during a period of time by detecting thecondition of inlet air – temperature and humidity – of the fan-coilair-conditioning system as well as the parameters of the inlet cooling waterprovided by the chiller.  

过长的句子: The gear transmission is grade seven, the gear gap is 0.00012 radians, the geargap has different output values corresponding to any given input value,nonlinearity of the gear gap model can be described by using the phase functionmethod, the existing backlash block in the non-linear library of theMatlab/zdimulink toolbox can be used, the initial value of gear gap in thebacklash block is set to zero.9

正确表述: The gear transmission is grade seven. The gear gap, which is 0.00012 radians,has different output values corresponding to any given input value. Thenonlinearity of the gear gap model can be described by using the phase functionmethod. The existing backlash block in the non-linear library of theMatlab/zdimulink toolbox can be used; the initial value of gear gap in thebacklash block is set to zero.

在科技文章中,还会经常因为列举而出现超长句.出现这种情况是作者想提供大量的数据,一般都是参数值,并且把这些信息揉进一个都可以成为一个段落的句子中.此时最好的解决办法就是把这些信息按照类别和取值用列表的形式给出(将它们都放入一个无序列表中)

过长的句子: …where m is the mass of the heavy disk mounted at the mid-span of a masslesselastic shaft, e is the eccentricity of the mass center from thegeometric center of the disk, φ is the angle between the orientation of theeccentricity and the ξ axis, k ξ and k η are the stiffnesscoefficients in two principal directions of shaft respectively, c is theviscous damping coefficient of the shaft and the disk, ci is the innerdamping coefficient of shaft, ω is the rotating speed, ξ s and η s arethe components of initial bend in directions of ξ ,η axes respectively: ξ s = rb cosθ ,η s = rb sinθ .1

正确的表述: Where

m is themass of the heavy disk mounted at the mid-span of a massless elasticshaft,

e is the eccentricityof the mass center from the geometric center of the disk,

φ is the angle between the orientation of theeccentricity and the ξaxis,

k ξ and k ηare the stiffness coefficients in the two principal directions of the shaft,

c is theviscous damping coefficient of the shaft and the disk,

ci is theinner damping coefficient of the shaft,

ω is the rotating speed,

ξ s and η s are the componentsof initial bend in directions of ξ ,η axes, respectively: ξ s = rb cosθ,η s = rb sinθ . 过长的句子 The clear height of the case is 6.15 meters; the thickness of the roof is 0.85meters; the thickness of the bottom is 0.90 meters, the overall width is 26.6meters, the overall length of the axial cord is 304.5 meters, the length of thejacking section is about 148.8 meters; the weight of the case is about 24127tons.3

清晰表述:   • Caseclearance height 6.15 meters

• Roof thickness 0.85 meters

• Bottom thickness 0.90 meters

• Overall width 26.6 meters

• Overall length of the axial cord 304.5meters

• Length of the jacking section 148.8 meters(approx.)

• Weight of the case 24127 tons (approx.)

以目的/地点和原因的陈述作为句子主要论点的序言

中国作者通常都把写作目的/发生地点/发生原因/事例或现状放在主题句的开始以此作为引言.但是这将削弱主要观点的重要性,使得读者认为作者没有直接切题.因此,主要的观点一定要将其放在句子的最开始部分,其后再陈述地点/原因等.

错误表达  For the application inautomobile interiors, this paper studies the nesting optimization problem inleather manufacturing. 5

正确表达  This paper studies thenesting optimization problem in leather manufacturing for application inautomobile interiors.

错误表达    Especially when numerical control (NC)techniques[4] are widely used in industry and rapid prototype methods[5][6]bring a huge economical benefits, the advantage of constructing 3Dmodel[7][8][9] becomes extremely obvious.2

正确表达  The advantage of constructinga 3D model[7][8][9] becomes extremely obvious especially when numerical control(NC) techniques[4] are widely used in industry and rapid prototypemethods[5][6] bring a huge economical benefits.

错误表达   Inside thetest box, the space was filled with asbestos.15

正确表达  The spaceinside the test box was filled with asbestos.

错误表达   In practice, we employed this approach todispose of a wheelhouse subassembly of one kind of auto-body, and the resultsshow that this method is feasible.16

正确表达 We employed this approach to dispose of a wheelhouse subassembly of onekind of auto-body, and the results show that this method is feasible.

错误表达   To ensure sheet metal quality as well asassembly quality, CMMs are widely used in automotive industry production.16

正确表达 CMMs are widely used in automotive industry production to ensuresheet metal quality as well as assembly quality.

倾向于把表示时间的短语放在句子的开头

错误表达   When U istaken as the control parameter, the BDs for Δ =0.0, 0.001, 0.005 are shown inFig. 8.

正确表达   Figure 8 shows the BDs for Δ =0.0, 0.001, and0.005 when U is taken as the control parameter.

把最重要的主题放在句子的开头进行强调

错误表达   Based on the triangulation structure builtfrom unorganized points or a CAD model, the extended STL format is described inthis section.4

正确表达   The extended STL format is described in thissection based on the triangulation structure built from unorganized points or aCAD model.

错误表达 The 3D dentition defect and restoration element models are designedprecisely with complicated surfaces.4

正确表达 The 3D dentition defect and restoration element models with complicatedsurfaces are designed precisely.

"which/ that'

引导词(名词或代词) which 指代不清楚,造成混淆.

引导词   一个代词指称的名词或者代词

'The Shijiazhuang south road undergroundbridge possesses the largest jacking force, which is built at 1978(10680t).'['Shijiazhuang south road underground bridge possesses the largest jackingforce which is built at 1978(10680t).']

Absolute truths in paleontology are oftenelusive, and even the filmmakers were surprised at the fierce arguments thatsplit the SCIentists when an initial brainstorming session was else.

'Respectively' 和 'respective'

Respectively 是重新提及二个以上的人或者事物,但提及的顺序是严格按照之前提及或者设定的顺序.如果给定两个列表, respectively 将按照给定的次序对输入顺序进行配对.在使用 respectively 时,作者可以同时给出大量信息而不会让读者感到费解,也不用写几个短句. Respectively 一般用在句末.无论什么情况,要用到 respectively 就表明信息被提及的顺序对于句子意思的表达很重要,否则它不会被用到.

例如: Bobby,Nicole and Daren wore red, green and blue coats, respectively.

List 1 List 2

Bobby wore a red coat.

Nicole wore a green coat.

Daren wore a blue coat.

Respective 是提及两个以上的人或者事物,并严格按照它们原来提及的顺序.

这两个词经常被误用,或者在下面的例子中被混淆.

1/       Respectively 在句中的位置不当;该词被置于指代的名词之前

错误表达   Equations 2 ~ 6 can be respectively linearizedas:……(equations given)…13

正确表达  Equations 2 ~ 6 can be linearized as:……(equations given)…, respectively .

错误表达   The weightsof the two experts are respectively 0.600 and 0.400.19

正确表达   The weightsof the two experts are 0.600 and 0.400, respectively .

2/       为了表达某一特定的顺序,在句中插入 Respectively ,但是其实要表达的顺序其实在句中其他地方已经暗含了,或者这种次序没有必要表达,因为它并不能增加句子的信息量.

错误表达  If both the core technologyscore and core quality score of a bottleneck process are , respectively, belowcertain scores, then we refer to strategy 1, otherwise, if either is ,respectively, above a certain score, then we refer to strategy 2. Similarly,if the core technology and core quality are , respectively, above a certainscore, then we refer to strategy 3, otherwise, if either is , respectively, belowa certain score, then we refer to strategy 4.19

正确表达   If both the core technology score and corequality score of a bottleneck process are below certain scores, then we referto strategy 1, otherwise, if either is above a certain score, then we refer tostrategy 2. Similarly, if the core technology and core quality are above acertain score, then we refer to strategy 93, otherwise, if either is below acertain score, then we refer to strategy 4.

错误表达   Then, therows of vortex due to both of the long and short blades are transformed intotwo singularities on the ζ -plane and integrate the induced velocity along theblades respectively .

正确表达   Then, therows of vortex due to both of the long and short blades are transformed into twosingularities on the ζ -plane and integrate the induced velocity along theblades.

3/       除了 2 ,有时候句中的使用的 'respectively' 不知道要表明什么意思

错误表达   The dynamic characteristics of a rotor withasymmetric stiffness or with initial warp have been studied before respectively [1-4]

正确表达   The dynamic characteristics of a rotor withasymmetric stiffness or with initial warp have been studied before [1-4].

错误表达   The inlet and outlet temperature of the aircooler were measured using two thermocouples respectively .

正确表达   The inlet and outlet temperature of the aircooler were measured by using two thermocouples.

'In this paper', 'in this study'

当使用上述短语的时候,经常出现两种错误.第一个错误是过度使用.一些中国作者写的论文,上述短语几乎每一页都要出现两次以上.而英文国家的作者,这些短语主要用于两种情况:

1/ 在引言和结论中强调论文的主体内容

2/ 在正文中,指出其他期刊或者标准钟作者没有完成的工作,然后引出自己的所做的工作.

因此,如果一篇论文中二者之一出现的次数达三次以上,那么这个短语的使用就是存在问题的.实际上,读者明白在论文所展示的工作是由作者完成的(除非作者作出其他说明),所以没有任何原因表明有重复这个短语的必要性.

第二个错误更隐蔽.这两个短语经常被互换使用.

拙劣的表达 In this paper, IDEAS wasused to ….

正确的表达 Inthis study, IDEAS was used to….

拙劣的表达 In the paper, a SZG4031 towing tractor is used as the sample vehicle, itcomponents equivalent physical parameters are obtained by UG design and testing.9

正确的表达 In this study, a SZG4031 towing tractor is used as the sample vehicle,it components equivalent physical parameters are obtained by UG design and testing.

研究( study )是作者所做的工作.论文( paper )是作者陈述自己所做工作的方法以及读者所手中持有的 / 阅读的东西.需要记住的是作者表达类似的含义还可以使用其他的短信,例如 "in this research' 以及 " this paper present '

数字和方程

关于阿拉伯数字和方程的表达存在两种常见的错误.中国作者经常用阿拉伯数字代替单词.阿拉伯数字的使用本身并不是错误,但是决不能在句首使用.

错误表达    12 parameterswere selected for the experiment.

正确表达 Twelve parameters wereselected for the experiment.

此外,阿拉伯数字也存在过度使用.阿拉伯数字应该在科技文章中提供数据的时候使用,但是对于提供一般信息的时候,是不能使用阿拉伯数字的.

错误表达    All 3 studies concluded that the mean temperature should be 30°C .

正确的表达 All three studiesconcluded that the mean temperature should be 30°C .

这种问题是源于普通话是一种符号语言而非字母语言,所以中国作者在表达思想时,书写符号会比书写字母来的容易.这个问题在用方程代替文字表达的时候更为严重,而这种做法一般英文国家的作者是不会采用的.仔细思考下述的例子 .

方程应该尽可能多使用,但是不能插入到句中代替文字表达.大多数期刊,例如 InternationalJournal of Production Research 反对在正文中使用表达式,即使很短的表达式也不允许.

错误表达 If the power battery SOC > SOC lo and the driving torque belongs to the middle load,…

正确表达  If the power battery SOC isgreater than SOC lo and thedriving torque belongs to the middle load,…

错误表达   All 3 studiesconcluded that the mean temperature should be 30°C .

正确表达 All three studies concluded that the meantemperature should be 30°C .

格式

段落

一个段落是由一组句子构成的,是为了表达一个主题或者想法.分段意味着一个意思或者想法表达的结束以及另外一层意思的开始.英文所有的段落都要另起一行并伴以大概一英寸的缩进或者用一条线把两段隔开.后者在商务写作上更普遍.

中国学生对于分段经常感到很困惑;他们常在此犯两个方面的错误.其一,作者不能很好的分段.虽然对新的分段另起一行,但是没有缩进,所以让读者没有意识到段落已经切换到下一段了或者没有意识到已经表达的是下一层意思了.其二,一个段落之前,在单独的一行上有一个单独的句子.这一行与其后的段落一起缩进.这在中国文本中很常见,但是英语中却没有这样的写法.

 

" 图 ' ( Figure )和 " 表 ' ( Table )

Figure 和 Table 的缩写分别是 Fig. 和 Tbl. 但是在正文中一般 table 的缩写很少见.在写作中,也可以用 fig. 作为 figure 的缩写,但是一旦选中了一种缩写,在整篇论文中,您只能用这一种缩写方法,不能在 Figure , Fig. 和 figure , fig. 之间交替使用.此外,句首不能使用缩写形式,单词 / 缩写和数字之间要用空格.

错误表达   Figure.6,Figure6, Fig.6, Tbl10

正确表达  Figure 6,Fig. 6, Tbl. 10

 

变量

变量,尤其是用英语字母表示的变量在科技文章中应该用斜体,以区分其他单词.当然,这取决于您要投稿的期刊对样式的要求.

 

大写

注意在一个句字中间不能用大写.

错误表达 In table 1, The mark…

正确表达 In table 1, the mark…

 

'such as' 和 'etc.'

中国作者在写英文文章是常常会误用 suchas 和 etc. Such as 是 " 比如说 ' ( for example )的意思,暗示下面的列举是 不完全列举 ; etc. 是 " 等等 ' ( and so on )的意思,一般用在列举的末尾表示这个列举没有穷尽.因此,如果把两个词语一起用就嫌多余.

错误表达 Studiesof methodology and process of implementing remanufacturing mainly focus ondurable products such as automobile motors , printers, and etc . 11

正确表达 Studiesof methodology and process of implementing remanufacturing mainly focus ondurable products such as automobile motors , and printers.

Such as 意思是指这个不完全的列举本来会进行全部列举,由于列举的全部并不会被用到,所以没有给出.

错误表达  Compared to traditionalindustry, Micro-electronic fabrication has three characteristics such as highcomplexity, high precision and high automation.

正确表达   Compared to traditional industry,Micro-electronic fabrication has three characteristics : high complexity,high precision and high automation.  

第二章

1 )有些单词单复数同形,所以复数形式不用加 s ,这些单词包括:

• literature ( 当提及前人的研究成果的时候 )

• equipment,

• staff ( 是指一组人 )

• faculty

2 )在下述这些经常被中国作者使用的英语词组中,要尽量避免出现冗余的词.

3 )一些单词对于其所修辞的名词要用复数形式.这些词包括 different , vario us 和数字.

4 )千万不能在一个英语句子的句首用类似 Fig. 和 8. 之类的缩写以及阿拉伯数字.应该用文字表示成: Figure 和 Eight .

5 )不要用 'by this way' ,用 'by doing this' 或者 ' usingthis method' 取而代之.

6 )千万不能在句首写下 'how to' (说的时候也别说这样说)

错误 How to find the optimal parameter is themain objective.

正确 Determining how to find the optimalparameter is the main objective.

7 )一定要这样写 'the results are shownin Figure 2'. , 而不能写成 'the results are showed as

Figure2'

8 )在正文中出线的变量要用斜体,从而与其他词语区分.当这些变量是用英语字母表示的时候这就显得尤为重要.正确的写法是 'Thegraph shows t , a , and C as a function of time' , 而不是 'Thegraph shows t, a, and C as a function of time'

9 )在下述情况下,科技文章中一定要限制使用 obviously

错误 Obviously, detecting regimes by means of PMH mapsis a novel method.8

正确 Detectingregimes by means of PMH maps is a novel method.8

10 )国际学术文章不能使用有地点依存性的词,例如 'at  home' , 'abroad' , 'here' , 'our country' ,因为对着的很可能不是中国人,也不在中国,应该写 'in China' .

11 )不要滥用 'that is to say' 和 'namely' . 应该用一个单独的句子来表达您的意思.

12 )句末不要用 'too' ,尤其是在科技文章中.

 

 

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