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艾德思:SCI论文写作不得不收藏的万能句型

论文润色 | 2019/06/25 13:58:16  | 264 次浏览

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摘要:描述观点的重要性

 

       1. One of the most significant current discussions in legal and moral philosophy is ......

  2. It is becoming increasingly difficult to ignore the .....

  3. X is the leading cause of death in western industrialised countries.

  4. X is a common disorder characterised by ......

  5. Xs are one of the most widely used groups of antibacterial agents and ......

 

摘要:强调该研究领域的一个重要问题

 

        1. However, these rapid changes are having a serious effect ......

  2. However, a major problem with this kind of application is ......

  3. Lack of X has existed as a health problem for many years.

  4. Despite its safety and efficacy, X suffers from several major drawbacks:

  5. However, research has consistently shown that first year students have notattained an adequate understanding of ......There is increasing concern that some Xs are being disadvantaged ......

 

描述方式:描述不同的方式

 

  1. To date various methods have been developed and introduced to measure X:

  2. In most recent studies, X is measured in four different ways.

  3. Radiographic techniques are the main non-invasive method used to determine ....

  4. Different authors have measured X in a variety of ways.

  5. Previous studies have based their criteria for selection on ......

 

解释为什么采用一个特殊的方式

 

  1. The semi-structured approach was chosen because ......

  2. Smith et al (1994) identify several advantages of the case study, .......

  3. It was decided that the best method to adopt for this investigation was to ......

  4. A case study approach was chosen to allow a ......

  5. The design of the questionnaires was based on ......

 

讨论:背景信息

 

  1. A strong relationship between X and Y has been reported in the literature.

  2. Prior studies that have noted the importance of ......

  3. In reviewing the literature, no data was found on the association between X and Y.

  4. As mentioned in the literature review, ......

  5. Very little was found in the literature on the question of .....

 

讨论:陈述结果

 

  1. The results of this study show/indicate that .......

  2. This experiment did not detect any evidence for ......

  3. On the question of X, this study found that ......

  4. The current study found that ......

  5. The most interesting finding was that ......

 

结论:概括内容

 

  1. This paper has given an account of and the reasons for the widespread use of X ......

  2. This essay has argued that X is the best instrument to ......

  3. This assignment has explained the central importance of X in Y.

 

结论:重申研究目的

 

  1. This study set out to determine ......

  2. The present study was designed to determine the effect of .......

  3. In this investigation, the aim was to assess ......

  4. The purpose of the current study was to determine ......

  5. This project was undertaken to design ...... and evaluate .....

 

参考文献:相关文献概览

 

  1. A considerable amount of literature has been published on X. These studies ......

  2. There is a large volume of published studies describing the role of ......

  3. The first serious discussions and analyses of X emerged during the 1970s with ......

  4. The generalisability of much published research on this issue is problematic.

  5. What we know about X is largely based upon empirical studies that investigate how ......

 

参考文献:以往研究或学术活动相关文献

 

  1. Many historians have argued that ...... (eg. Jones, 1987; Johnson, 1990; Smith, 1994)

  2. Numerous studies have attempted to explain ..... (for example, Smith , 1996; Kelly, 1998; Johnson, 2002)

  3. Recent evidence suggests that ....... (Smith, 1996; Jones 1999; Johnson, 2001)

  4. Recently, in vitro studies have shown that T.thermophylus EFTu can ...... (Patel et al., 1997;Jones et al., 1998).

  5. Surveys such as that conducted by Smith (1988) have shown that ......

 

论文重点:当前理论存在的问题/局限性

 

  1. One question that needs to be asked, however, is whether ......

  2. A serious weakness with this argument, however, is that ......

  3. One of the limitations with this explanation is that it does not explain why...4. One criticism of much of the literature on X is that ......

  5. The key problem with this explanation is that ......

 

论文重点:研究方式存在的问题/局限性

 

  1. Another problem with this approach is that it fails to take X into account.

  2. Perhaps the most serious disadvantage of this method is that .....

  3. Difficulties arise, however, when an attempt is made to implement the policy.

  4. Nevertheless, the strategy has not escaped criticism from governments, agencies and academics.

  5. One major drawback of this approach is that ......

 

描述实验方式:强调一个特殊的方式

 

  1. Article references were searched further for additional relevant publications. Articles were searched from January 1965 until April 2008.

  2. Publications were only included if .......

  3. X was prepared according to the procedure used by Patel et al. (1957).

  4. The synthesis of X was done according to the procedure of Smith (1973).

  5. X was synthesised using the same method that was detailed for Y, using ......

 

描述实验方式:描述样品的特性

 

  1. The initial sample consisted of 200 students of whom 13 did not complete all of the interviews

  2. All studies described as using some sort of X procedure were included in the analysis.

  3. A systematic literature review was conducted of studies that .....

  4. All of the participants were aged between 18 and 19 at the beginning of the study.....

  5. Two groups of subjects were interviewed, namely X and Y. The first group were ......

 

描述实验过程:目的不明确

 

  1. In order to identify the T10 and T11 spinous processes, the subjects were asked to ......

  2. In order to understand how X regulates Y, a series of transfections was performed.

  3. To enable the subjects to see the computer screen clearly, the laptop was configured with ......

  4. To see if the two methods gave the same measurement, the data was plotted and ......

  5. To control for bias, measurements were carried out by another person.

 

描述实验过程:其他描绘实验过程的句型

 

  1. For the purpose of height measurement, subjects were asked to stand .....

  2. For the purpose of analysis, 2 segments were extracted from each ......

  3. For the estimation of protein concentration, 100 μL of protein sample was mixed with ......

 

文献简介

 

  1. Recently investigators have examined the effects of X on Y.

  2. In the past two decades a number of researchers have sought to determine ......

  3. Previous studies have reported ......

  4. A considerable amount of literature has been published on X. These studies ......

  5. Smith (1984: 217) shows how, in the past, research into X was mainly concerned with .......

 

强调研究领域存在的问题

 

  1. However, these rapid changes are having a serious effect ......

  2. However, a major problem with this kind of application is ......

  3. Lack of X has existed as a health problem for many years.Despite its safety and efficacy, X suffers from several major drawbacks:

  4. However, research has consistently shown that first year students have not attained an adequate understanding of ......

  5. There is increasing concern that some Xs are being disadvantaged ......

 

强调研究领域存在的争议

 

   1. To date there has been little agreement on what ......

   2. More recently, literature has emerged that offers contradictory findings about .....

  3. One observer has already drawn attention to the paradox in ......

  4. In many Xs a debate is taking place between Ys and Zs concerning ......

  5. The controversy about SCIentific evidence for X has raged unabated for over a century.

 

强调研究领域的知识差距

 

  1. So far, however, there has been little discussion about ......

  2. Little is known about X and it is not clear what factors .......

  3. However, far too little attention has been paid to ......

  4. In addition, no research has been found that surveyed .......

  5. So far this method has only been applied to ......

 

强调前人研究的不足之处

 

  1. Most studies in the field of X have only focussed on ......

  2. Most studies in X have only been carried out in a small number of areas.

  3. The generalisability of much published research on this issue is problematic.

  4. The experimental data are rather controversial, and there is no general agreement about ......

  5. Such expositions are unsatisfactory because they .....

 

重申研究目的

 

  1. Part of the aim of this project is to develop software that is compatible with X operating system.

  2. The main purpose of this study is to develop an understanding of ......

  3. There are two primary aims of this study: 1. To investigate ...... 2. To ascertain ......

  4. The aim of this research project has therefore been to try and establish what ......

  5. The aim of this study is to investigate the differences between ......

 

研究问题/假设

 

  1. The central question in this dissertation asks how ......

  2. In particular, this dissertation will examine six main research questions:

  3. The hypothesis that will be tested is that ......

  4. The key research question of this study was thus whether or not ......

  5. This study aimed to address the following research questions:

 

介绍方式/数据的来源

 

  1. This dissertation follows a case-study design, with in-depth analysis of ...... 2. This study was exploratory and interpretative in nature.

  3. The approach to empirical research adopted for this study was one of a qualitative, semi- structured interview methodology.

  4. By employing qualitative modes of enquiry, I attempt to illuminate the ......

  This work takes the form of a case-study of the ......

  5. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used in this investigation.

 

表明局限性

 

  1. Due to practical constraints, this paper cannot provide a comprehensive review of ...... It is beyond the scope of this study to examine the .......The reader should bear in mind that the study is based on a small sample of ......

  2. Another potential problem is that the scope of my thesis may be too broad. A full discussion of X lies beyond the scope of this study.

 

概况研究框架

 

  1. The overall structure of the study takes the form of six chapters, including this introductory chapter.

  2. My thesis is composed of four themed chapters.

  3. Chapter Two begins by laying out the theoretical dimensions of the research, and looks at how ......

  4. The third chapter is concerned with the methodology used for this study.

  5. The fourth section presents the findings of the research, focusing on the three key themes that have been identified in analysis.

 

解释关键术语

 

  1. While a variety of definitions of the term X have been suggested, this dissertation will use the definition first suggested by Smith (1968) who saw it as .......

  2. Throughout this paper the term X will refer to/will be used to refer to .......

  3. In this dissertation the acronym/abbreviation XYZ will be used.

  4. According to ...... (2000) X can be defined as follows; " X is one of ...... "

  5. The term X is a relatively new name for ...... commonly referred to as ...

 

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