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英文文献引用规范doc,EditSprings,艾德思

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 英语文献引用规范 1/文献引证 参考文献引用的规范按(the American Psychological Association)规范,本节提供部分实例,供参考. 正文中的引证 学位文章引用别人的观点/方式/言论必须注明出处,注明出处时应该使用括号夹注的方式,一般不使用脚注或者尾注. .1 引用整篇文献的观点 引用整篇文献(即全书或全文)观点时有两种情况,一种是作者的姓氏在正文中没有出现,如: Charlotte and Emily Bronte were polar opposites, not only in their personalities but in their sources of inspiration for writing (Taylor, 1990). 另一种情况是作者的姓氏已在正文同一句中出现,如: Taylor claims that Charlotte and Emily Bronte were polar opposites, not only in their personalities but in their sources of inspiration for writing (1990). 如果作者的姓氏和文献出版年份均已在正文同一句中出现,如: In a 1990 article, Taylor claims that Charlotte and Emily Bronte were polar opposites, not only in their personalities but in their sources of inspiration for writing. 在英语撰写的文章中引用中文著作或者期刊,括号夹注中只需用汉语拼音标明作者的姓氏,不得使用汉字,如: (Zhang, 2005) .2 引用文献中具体观点或文字 引用文献中某一具体观点或文字时必须注明该观点或者该段文字出现的页码,没有页码是文献引用不规范的表现.例如: Emily Bronte "expressed increasing hostility for the world of human relationships, whether sexual or social' (Taylor, 1988, p. 11). Newmark (1988, pp. 39-40) notes three characteristically expressive text-types: (a) serious imaginative literature (e.g. lyrical poetry); (b) authoritative statements (political speeches and documents, statutes and legal documents, philosophical and academic works by acknowledged authorities); (c) autobiography, essays, personal correspondence (when these are personal effusions). 注意在这些例子中引文超过一页时的页码标记方式:(1988, pp. 39-40). 假若作者的姓氏已在正文同一句中出现,则不需要在括号夹注中重复,如: Taylor writes that Emily Bronte "expressed increasing hostility for the world of human relationships, whether sexual or social' (1988, p. 11). .3 引用多位作者写作的同一文献 两位作者: Research (Yamada Sullivan, Weinert Weinert translated 1913) 著录尚未正式出版的文献 硕博士文章(Dissertation) Thompson, L. (1988). Social perception in negotiation. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL. 学术会议上的报告(Conference paper) Hogan, R., Raskin, R., Mizuno, 1985) have attributed the lower error rates to learners' avoidance of uncertain uses of articles. 错误: People (Kharma, 1981;Mizuno, 1985)have attributed the lower error rates to learners' avoidance of uncertain uses of articles. 正确: Master (1987, 1988) also found that "the' was overused in the same environment. 错误: Master (1987,1988) also found that "the' was overused in the same environment. 正确: Hakuta (1976) found two types of error in the subjects' article usage and he termed them "error of omission' and "error of commission.' 错误: Hakuta (1976) found two types of error in the subjects' article usage and he termed them "error of omission ' and " error of commission.' 句子结尾在标点后空一格,不要空两格. 正确使用大小写 文章中使用有序号的单位的时候,单位名称的首字母应该大写(见图). 图:单位名称的正确格式 正确: Rules frequently cited by the interviewees are summed up in Table 3.9. 正确: The results show that Group 1 outperformed Group 2. 错误: Rules frequently cited by the interviewees are summed up in table 3.9. 错误: The results show that group 1 outperformed group 2. 任何标题第一个词的首字母必须大写.如果一个冒号后面的小句是一个完整的句子,小句第一个词的首字母必须大写. 正确使用连接符号 括号夹注中出现两至三个作者时,在APA的规范里应使用连接符号"&'(ampersand).连接符号"&'不得出现在正文里(见图). 图:连接符号的使用 正确: Yamada and Matsuura (1982) also reported the poor performance of some advanced Japanese college students who could use English articles correctly only in 70 percent of the cases. 错误: Yamada & Matsuura (1982) also reported the poor performance of some advanced Japanese college students who could use English articles correctly only in 70 percent of the cases. 2.1.4 正确使用斜体(italics) (1) 文章中的语言实例(linguistic example)/即作为单词引用的单词(words referred to as words)和作为字母引用的字母可以用斜体表示.文中不得用大写体或者另一种字体来表示单词(见图). 图:斜体的使用 正确: Many people, even Shaw, spelled Shakespeare without the final e. 正确: Difficult words such as sphinx were explained in Chinese. 正确: Twelve of the 30 participants in Group 2 could not correctly pronounce building. 错误: Many people, even Shaw, spelled Shakespeare without the final "e.' 错误: Difficult words such as SPHINX were explained in Chinese. 错误: Twelve of the 30 participants in Group 2 could not correctly pronounce building. (2)独立出版物(包括书报杂志/期刊/剧本/电影/软件等)的名称用斜体标出,如,Contemporary History of China(书籍)/Wall Street Journal(报纸)/Star Trek(电影),但是出版物内含的作品的名称以及未出版的作品(讲演/文章等)的名称用引号标出,如,"The Lottery'(短篇小说)/"London'(诗歌)/"How to Succeed in an Interview'(演讲稿). (3)正文中引用非英文的拉丁语应使用斜体. (4)统计符号应使用斜体,如"t test'. (5)APA规范中期刊的卷数(不包括卷内的册数)应使用斜体,如"Language Learning, 23, 1'. (6)汉语拼音用斜体. 正确使用引号 引号在(1)正文中加入引语时使用;(2)引用独立出版物内含作品的名称以及未出版的作品(讲演/文章等)的名称时使用;(3)正文中第一次引用俚语/引用有讽刺意味或者生造的词语使用(但第二次引用开始则不再使用引号),如: Researchers in the West consider them learners' "normal' behavior. However, there is little evidence that such normal behavior can be found in Chinese university students. 文章中的语言实例(linguistic example)用斜体表示而不用引号标出. 文章中的引语段不得用引号标出. 避免使用缩略语(contractions) 正文中不得使用口语体,不得使用缩略语,即:用"it is'/"I am'而不用"it's'/"I'm'. 数字的使用 (1)如果用英文撰写的文章偏重于文献研究而不需要使用很多数字,则应用英文拼写可以用一个或者两个单词表示的数字,如: eightforty seventhree hundredone thousand 其余数字用阿拉伯数字表示,如"301'/"111'等.如果文章偏重于实证研究/需要使用大量数字,则正文中从"0'到"9'的数字必须用英文拼写,10和10以上的数字用阿拉伯数字表示,但是图表中的数字/用以作数学/统计运算的数字以及文字结构上与10以上数字相联系的数字即使小于10也仍旧用阿拉伯数字表示,如: 25 words, including 8 verbs, 10 nouns, 7 adjectives in 4 of the 22 cases studied… (2)量词前的数字必须用阿拉伯数字表示,如:"5 lbs.'. (3)日期/地址/页码中的数字必须用阿拉伯数字表示. (4)大数字可以同时用拼写和阿拉伯数字表示,如:"$2 million'. (5)句首的数字必须用英文拼写(见图). 图:句首数字的处理 正确: One hundred and thirty four students of a natural class participated in the study. 错误: 134 students of a natural class participated in the study. 非英文词句的引用 用英文撰写的文章必须使得母语为英文的读者能够看懂,因此文章中引用的汉语或其它语言的词句都应该加以解释. 专门讨论

 

 

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